Tyburn Tree: Hidden History at Marble Arch

Did you know that Marble Arch was in fact moved from outside Buckingham Palace and erected here in 1851, giving the whole area a new name.

Even more peculiar though is the Tyburn Tree, what the area used to be famous for…

So you could be easily forgiven for missing this insignificant traffic island in the middle of a busy road junctions;

Tyburn Tree Marble Arch

Surrounded by three saplings, you’ll find this plaque embedded in the pavement;

Tyburn Tree Marble Arch

So what’s the story?

Tyburn Tree

Never an actual tree, Tyburn Tree was the site of public hangings, possibly established as early as 1108, the first recorded execution was in 1196. From 1571 a wooden scaffold was erected in a triangular shape, able to host three hangings simultaneously, perfect for a waiting crowd eager for some entertainment.

Tyburn Tree Marble Arch

Illustration from around 1680 from the National Archives at Kew

A Fun Day Out For the whole family!

Public hangings were extremely popular (when the highwayman, Jack Sheppard, was hanged it was said that the audience reached around 200,000!) Huge crowds would follow the condemned on the 3 mile cart ride from Newgate Prison (in Holborn) to Marble Arch.

Hanging days were public holidays and the large crowds were there for the spectacle, not only for the death itself but the dramatic speeches that preceded the hangings; a last minute confession or defiant denial also went down well. It’s these speeches that led to the tradition of public speaking and eventually Speaker’s Corner being established near this site.

Several phrases are said to relate to this history, including “one for the road” (the last pint before the prisoner starts his journey) and “hangover” (Hanging days were raucous, boozy affairs so the day after you wouldn’t feel great!)

Despite the popularity – or perhaps because of the growing crowds – the gallows were eventually moved from Tyburn and from 1798 public executions took place at Newgate Prison.

However, to accompany the plaque, there’s another piece of tangible evidence you can find.

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Surviving History

A short walk down Bayswater Road will take you to the Tyburn Convent.

Tyburn Tree Marble Arch

Founded in 1901 the convent was set up to pray for the souls of 105 Catholic martyrs who were executed between 1535 and 1681.

Tyburn Tree Marble Arch

Tyburn is a closed convent, meaning the nuns here (of which there are around 20) never leave this site and at all times there is at least one person praying for the souls of Catholic martyrs. 

It seems such a strange juxtaposition, to have a group of women who have intentionally shut themselves away from the world yards away from the busiest Shopping Street in Europe. 

“At first it’s really hard; you miss your friends and family, taking the dog for a walk. But after a while, this is your home, this is what you are doing and you are just at peace.” – Mother Marion

You can visit the Convent during some of their public prayer sessions and services (more info here). This is something I discovered by accident when I wandered in unsuspectingly on a Sunday and ended up sitting silently through a – fairly lengthy – mass. It just goes to show that there’s always something surprisingly to be uncovered in London!

If you’re interested in hearing more about the nuns’ daily life there was an article published by the BBC in 2005 which you can read here.

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3 Comments

  • MS J P Bale

    Reply

    Wow such an interesting article, thank you so much, I stumbled a cross this when watching Tony Robinson history of the Georgians, and mentioned the Tyburn tree so I looked it up and here we are x

    January 18, 2020 at 9:07 pm
  • Chris Wells

    Reply

    Yes. Origin of ” old rope.” The hangman had the rope, used only once, and separated it into strands. These, he ( or she) sold to the local population who bought them as symbols of good luck. This was ” money for old rope.

    June 26, 2020 at 8:34 pm

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